Lack of anabolic response to skeletal loading in mice with targeted disruption of the pleiotrophin gene
© Mohan et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2008
Received: 27 June 2008
Accepted: 01 December 2008
Published: 01 December 2008
In a previous study we showed, using the whole genome microarray approach, that pleiotrophin (PTN) expression was increased by 4-fold in response to mechanical loading (ML) in a good responder C57BL/6J (B6) mice. To address PTN role in mediating ML effects on bone formation, we first evaluated time course effects of ML on expression levels of PTN gene using real time RT-PCR in 10 week female B6 mice. A 9 N load was applied using a four-point bending device at 2 Hz frequency for 36 cycles, once per day for 2, 4 and 12 days on the right tibia and the left tibia was used as internal control.
Four-point bending caused an acute increase in PTN expression (2-fold) within 2 days of loading and further increased (3–6 fold) with continued loading. This increase was also seen in 16 and 36-week old mice. Based on these findings, we next used PTN knockout (KO) mice to evaluate the cause and effect relationship. Quantitative analysis showed that two weeks of ML induced changes in vBMD and bone size in the PTN KO mice (8% and 6% vs. non-loaded bones) were not significantly different from control mice (11% and 8% in vBMD and bone size vs. non-loaded bones).
Our results imply that PTN is not a key upstream mediator of the anabolic effects of ML on the skeleton.
Mechanical loading is now recognized as an important stimulator of bone formation. Numerous studies in animal and humans, using various loading models have demonstrated that loading increases bone mass while unloading decreases bone mass [1–6]. To date, reports have shown that several growth factors and signaling pathways are known to be activated by ML [7–11]. However, the relative contribution of each of these pathways to ML induced bone formation is not known. We previously, using genome-wide microarray approach have reported that mechanical loading by four-point bending caused a 4-fold increase in Heparin binding growth factor, otherwise known as PTN, in a good responder B6 mouse . PTN, a 36 amino acid bone growth factor rich in lysine and cysteine residues, is also known as Osteoblast Specific Factor 1. PTN is involved in diverse functions, which includes: cell recruitment, cell attachment and proliferation, differentiation, angiogensis, and neurogenesis [12–14]. In vitro studies have demonstrated that PTN has the ability to promote adhesion, migration, expansion and differentiation of human osteoprogenitor and MC3T3-E1 cells [15–17]. In vivo studies using transgenic approach have shown that ovariectomy induced bone loss, due to estrogen deficiency, were protected by an increase in the expression of the PTN gene . Another transgenic study, with overexpression of the human PTN gene showed an increase in cortical thickness, bone volume and cancellous bone volume . In addition, immunocytochemistry studies has provided visual evidence for PTN at the site of new bone formation [15, 16]. Based on the above findings and our data that PTN expression is increased in response to ML, we hypothesize that PTN play a role in mediating anabolic effects of ML on bone formation. To test this hypothesis, we performed ML using four-point bending device on mice with disruption of PTN gene and control mice with intact PTN gene.
Female C57BL/6J (B6) mice were purchased from Jackson laboratory (Bar Harbor, ME). PTN gene knock out (KO) mice (PTN-129 in B6 background) were generated by Dr. Thomas F. Vogt and the breeding pairs were kindly provided by Princeton University, NJ, USA, for our studies. PTN KO mice were crossed with wild type B6 mice to generate the heterozygotes. These were crossed with each other to generate 25% homozygous PTN KO mice, 50% heterozygous and 25% littermate wild type mice. The body weight of PTN KO and control mice used for this study are 18.20 ± 0.95 g and 19.0 ± 1.39 g, respectively. The differences in body weight were not statistically significant (p = 0.20). All mice were housed under the standard conditions of 14-hour light and 10-hour darkness, and had free access to food and water. The experimental protocols were in compliance with animal welfare regulations and approved by local IACUC.
At 3-weeks (wks) of age, DNA was extracted from tail of female mice, using a PUREGENE DNA purification kit (Gentra System, Inc., Minneapolis, MN) according to the manufacturer's protocol. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed to identify PTN KO mice from wild type or heterozygous mice. Primers specific for neomycin gene (forward 5' CTT GCT CCT GCC GAG AAA GTA T 3' and reverse 5' AGC AAT ATC ACG GGT AGC CAA C 3' with a PCR product of 369 bp). Primers specific for PTN gene (forward 5' TCT GAC TGT GGQA GAA TGG CAG T 3' and reverse 5' CTT CTT CCA GTT GCA AGG GAT C 3' with a PCR product of 147 bp) were used for genotyping. The following conditions were used to perform the PCR reaction: 95°C for 2 minutes; 35 cycles at 95°C for 40 sec, 57°C for 40 sec, 72°C for 40 sec; 70°C for 40 sec. The PCR products were run on a 1.5% agarose gel and the image taken with a ChemiImager 4400 (Alpha Innotech Corp., San Leandro, CA).
In vivo loading model/regimen
ML was performed using a four-point bending device [Instron, Canton, MA], as previously reported . The mice were loaded using a 9.0 ± 0.2 Newton (N) force at a frequency of 2 Hz for 36 cycles, once a day under inhalable anesthesia (5% Isoflurane and 95% oxygen). The right tibia was used for loading and the left tibia as internal non-loaded control.
For the time course study, the loading was performed at 2-, 4- and 12-days on 10-week female B6 mice. After 24 hours of the last loading, mice were euthanized and tibiae were collected for RNA extraction.
For varying age groups of female B6 mice, female PTN KO and control mice, the loading was performed for 12 days. After 48 hours of the last loading, following in vivo bone measurement, mice were euthanized; tibiae (loaded and non-loaded) were collected and stored at -80°C for further experiments.
Peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) measurements
To measure four-point bending induced changes in the bone parameters in loaded and non-loaded tibiae, we used pQCT (Stratec XCT 960 M, Norland Medical System, Ft. Atkinson, WI) as described previously .
RNA was extracted from the loaded and non-loaded bones using qiagen lipid extraction kit [Qiagen, Valencia, CA], as previously described . Quality and quantity of RNA were analyzed using the 2100 Bio-analyzer (Agilent, Palo Alto, CA, USA) and Nano-drop (Wilmington, DE).
Reverse Transcriptase – Real time PCR
Using 200 ng purified total RNA, first strand cDNA was synthesized by iScript cDNA synthesis kit (BIO-RAD, CA, USA), according to the manufacturer's protocol. Quantitative real time PCR was performed, as previously described, in order to analyze the expression levels of PTN and PPIA ((peptidylprolyl isomerase A), an endogenous control) . The data were analyzed using SDS software, version 2.0, and the results were exported to Microsoft Excel for further analysis. Data normalization was accomplished using the endogenous control (PPIA) to correct for variation in the RNA quality among samples. The normalized Ct values were subjected to a 2-ΔΔCt formula to calculate the fold change between the loaded and non -loaded groups. The formula and its derivations were obtained from the instrument user guide.
Values are given as mean ± SD. ANOVA (Bonferroni's post-hoc test) and standard t-test were used to compare the difference between load and non-loaded bones at various time-points, ages and strains using the fold change and percentage data. We used Statistica software (StatSoft, Inc version 7.1, 2005) to perform the analysis and the results were considered significant at p < 0.05.
Results and discussion
It is well established that the amount of mechanical strain exerted by a given load is largely dependent on the cross sectional area (moment of inertia) such that a mouse with a large cross sectional area will experience lower mechanical strain and vice versa [1, 20]. In order to assure that the difference in the bone responsiveness to loading between PTN KO mice and controls is not due to difference in the mechanical strain, we measured the bone size by pQCT at tibia mid diaphysis and calculated the mechanical strain using a mathematical model (Stephen C. Cowin: Bone Mechanics Hand book, 2nd edition, 2001, chapter: Techniques from mechanics and imaging) for both sets of mice before the loading. We found that there is no significant difference in the bone size (4.55 mm vs. 4.69 mm, p = 0.50) as well as in the mechanical strain for 9 N (6310με vs.6351 με, p = 0.91) between the PTN KO mice and controls. Thus, the applied load was the same for both sets of mice.
This work was supported by the Army Assistance Award No. DAMD17-01-1-0074. The US Army Medical Research Acquisition Activity (Fort Detrick, MD) 21702-5014 is the awarding and administering acquisition office for the DAMD award. The information contained in this publication does not necessarily reflect the position or the policy of the Government, and no official endorsement should be inferred. All work was performed in facilities provided by the Department of Veterans Affairs. We would like to thank Mr. Peter Gifford and Anil Kapoor for their animal work in this project and James Dekeyser for his technical support in four-point bending instrument.
- Kesavan C, Mohan S, Oberholtzer S, Wergedal JE, Baylink DJ: Mechanical loading-induced gene expression and BMD changes are different in two inbred mouse strains. J Appl Physiol. 2005, 99 (5): 1951-1957. 10.1152/japplphysiol.00401.2005.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Akhter MP, Cullen DM, Pedersen EA, Kimmel DB, Recker RR: Bone response to in vivo mechanical loading in two breeds of mice. Calcif Tissue Int. 1998, 63 (5): 442-449. 10.1007/s002239900554.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kodama Y, Dimai HP, Wergedal J, Sheng M, Malpe R, Kutilek S, Beamer W, Donahue LR, Rosen C, Baylink DJ: Cortical tibial bone volume in two strains of mice: effects of sciatic neurectomy and genetic regulation of bone response to mechanical loading. Bone. 1999, 25 (2): 183-190. 10.1016/S8756-3282(99)00155-6.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Snow-Harter C, Bouxsein ML, Lewis BT, Carter DR, Marcus R: Effects of resistance and endurance exercise on bone mineral status of young women: a randomized exercise intervention trial. J Bone Miner Res. 1992, 7 (7): 761-769.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Umemura Y, Ishiko T, Yamauchi T, Kurono M, Mashiko S: Five jumps per day increase bone mass and breaking force in rats. J Bone Miner Res. 1997, 12 (9): 1480-1485. 10.1359/jbmr.19126.96.36.1990.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bikle DD, Sakata T, Halloran BP: The impact of skeletal unloading on bone formation. Gravit Space Biol Bull. 2003, 16 (2): 45-54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Xing W, Baylink D, Kesavan C, Hu Y, Kapoor S, Chadwick RB, Mohan S: Global gene expression analysis in the bones reveals involvement of several novel genes and pathways in mediating an anabolic response of mechanical loading in mice. J Cell Biochem. 2005, 96 (5): 1049-1060. 10.1002/jcb.20606.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lau KH, Kapur S, Kesavan C, Baylink DJ: Up-regulation of the Wnt, estrogen receptor, insulin-like growth factor-I, and bone morphogenetic protein pathways in C57BL/6J osteoblasts as opposed to C3H/HeJ osteoblasts in part contributes to the differential anabolic response to fluid shear. J Biol Chem. 2006, 281 (14): 9576-9588. 10.1074/jbc.M509205200.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Triplett JW, O'Riley R, Tekulve K, Norvell SM, Pavalko FM: Mechanical loading by fluid shear stress enhances IGF-1 receptor signaling in osteoblasts in a PKCzeta-dependent manner. Mol Cell Biomech. 2007, 4 (1): 13-25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Boutahar N, Guignandon A, Vico L, Lafage-Proust MH: Mechanical strain on osteoblasts activates autophosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase and proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 tyrosine sites involved in ERK activation. J Biol Chem. 2004, 279 (29): 30588-30599. 10.1074/jbc.M313244200.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bacabac RG, Smit TH, Mullender MG, Dijcks SJ, van Loon JJ, Klein-Nulend J: Nitric oxide production by bone cells is fluid shear stress rate dependent. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004, 315 (4): 823-829. 10.1016/j.bbrc.2004.01.138.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Gieffers C, Engelhardt W, Brenzel G, Matsuishi T, Frey J: Receptor binding of osteoblast-specific factor 1 (OSF-1/HB-GAM) to human osteosarcoma cells promotes cell attachment. Eur J Cell Biol. 1993, 62 (2): 352-361.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Petersen W, Rafii M: Immunolocalization of the angiogenetic factor pleiotrophin (PTN) in the growth plate of mice. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 2001, 121 (7): 414-416. 10.1007/s004020000246.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Amet LE, Lauri SE, Hienola A, Croll SD, Lu Y, Levorse JM, Prabhakaran B, Taira T, Rauvala H, Vogt TF: Enhanced hippocampal long-term potentiation in mice lacking heparin-binding growth-associated molecule. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2001, 17 (6): 1014-1024. 10.1006/mcne.2001.0998.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Imai S, Kaksonen M, Raulo E, Kinnunen T, Fages C, Meng X, Lakso M, Rauvala H: Osteoblast recruitment and bone formation enhanced by cell matrix-associated heparin-binding growth-associated molecule (HB-GAM). J Cell Biol. 1998, 143 (4): 1113-1128. 10.1083/jcb.143.4.1113.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Yang X, Tare RS, Partridge KA, Roach HI, Clarke NM, Howdle SM, Shakesheff KM, Oreffo RO: Induction of human osteoprogenitor chemotaxis, proliferation, differentiation, and bone formation by osteoblast stimulating factor-1/pleiotrophin: osteoconductive biomimetic scaffolds for tissue engineering. J Bone Miner Res. 2003, 18 (1): 47-57. 10.1359/jbmr.2003.18.1.47.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Tare RS, Oreffo RO, Clarke NM, Roach HI: Pleiotrophin/Osteoblast-stimulating factor 1: dissecting its diverse functions in bone formation. J Bone Miner Res. 2002, 17 (11): 2009-2020. 10.1359/jbmr.2002.17.11.2009.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Masuda H, Tsujimura A, Yoshioka M, Arai Y, Kuboki Y, Mukai T, Nakamura T, Tsuji H, Nakagawa M, Hashimoto-Gotoh T: Bone mass loss due to estrogen deficiency is compensated in transgenic mice overexpressing human osteoblast stimulating factor-1. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1997, 238 (2): 528-533. 10.1006/bbrc.1997.7188.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Liedert A, Augat P, Ignatius A, Hausser HJ, Claes L: Mechanical regulation of HB-GAM expression in bone cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004, 319 (3): 951-958. 10.1016/j.bbrc.2004.05.087.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kesavan C, Mohan S, Srivastava AK, Kapoor S, Wergedal JE, Yu H, Baylink DJ: Identification of genetic loci that regulate bone adaptive response to mechanical loading in C57BL/6J and C3H/HeJ mice intercross. Bone. 2006, 39 (3): 634-643. 10.1016/j.bone.2006.03.005.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Zou P, Muramatsu H, Sone M, Hayashi H, Nakashima T, Muramatsu T: Mice doubly deficient in the midkine and pleiotrophin genes exhibit deficits in the expression of beta-tectorin gene and in auditory response. Lab Invest. 2006, 86 (7): 645-653. 10.1038/labinvest.3700428.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Muramatsu H, Zou P, Kurosawa N, Ichihara-Tanaka K, Maruyama K, Inoh K, Sakai T, Chen L, Sato M, Muramatsu T: Female infertility in mice deficient in midkine and pleiotrophin, which form a distinct family of growth factors. Genes Cells. 2006, 11 (12): 1405-1417. 10.1111/j.1365-2443.2006.01028.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lehmann W, Schinke T, Schilling AF, Catala-Lehnen P, Gebauer M, Pogoda P, Gerstenfeld LC, Rueger JM, Einhorn TA, Amling M: Absence of mouse pleiotrophin does not affect bone formation in vivo. Bone. 2004, 35 (6): 1247-1255. 10.1016/j.bone.2004.08.017.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.