- Short Report
- Open Access
Characterization of copy numbers of 16S rDNA and 16S rRNA of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus and the implication in detection in planta using quantitative PCR
© Wang et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2009
- Received: 08 October 2008
- Accepted: 06 March 2009
- Published: 06 March 2009
Citrus Huanglongbing (HLB) is one of the most devastating diseases on citrus and is associated with Candidatus Liberibacter spp.. The pathogens are phloem limited and have not been cultured in vitro. The current management strategy of HLB is to remove infected citrus trees and reduce psyllid populations with insecticides to prevent the spreading. This strategy requires sensitive and reliable diagnostic methods for early detection.
We investigated the copy numbers of the 16S rDNA and 16S rRNA of the HLB pathogen and the implication of improving the diagnosis of HLB for early detection using Quantitative PCR. We compared the detection of HLB with different Quantitative PCR based methods with primers/probe targeting either 16S rDNA, beta-operon DNA, 16S rRNA, or beta-operon RNA. The 16S rDNA copy number of Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus was estimated to be three times of that of the beta-operon region, thus allowing detection of lower titer of Ca. L. asiaticus. Quantitative reverse transcriptional PCR (QRT-PCR) indicated that the 16S rRNA averaged 7.83 times more than that of 16S rDNA for the same samples. Dilution analysis also indicates that QRT-PCR targeting 16S rRNA is 10 time more sensitive than QPCR targeting 16S rDNA. Thus QRT-PCR was able to increase the sensitivity of detection by targeting 16S rRNA.
Our result indicates that Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus contains three copies of 16S rDNA. The copy number of 16S rRNA of Ca. L. asiaticus in planta averaged about 7.8 times of 16S rDNA for the same set of samples tested in this study. Detection sensitivity of HLB could be improved through the following approaches: using 16S rDNA based primers/probe in the QPCR assays; and using QRT-PCR assays targeting 16S rRNA.
- QPCR Assay
- Liberibacter Asiaticus
- Reliable Diagnostic Method
- Candidatus Liberibacter Asiaticus
- Ethidium Monoazide
Citrus Huanglongbing (HLB) is one of the most devastating diseases on citrus and is associated with a phloem limited bacterium which has yet to be cultured in vitro. Consequently, the pathogen was given a provisional Candidatus status in nomenclature [1, 2]. Currently, three species of the pathogen are recognized from trees with HLB disease based on 16S rDNA sequence: Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las), Ca. Liberibacter africanus (Laf), and Ca. Liberibacter americanus (Lam); Las is the most prevalent species among HLB infected trees [1, 3–5]. Las has been spreading worldwide over the last century and has been identified in Japan, China, Southeast Asia, India, Arabian Peninsula, Brazil, Florida and other citrus producing areas [3, 4]. The current management strategy of HLB is to remove infected citrus trees and reduce psyllid populations with insecticides to prevent it from spreading. This strategy requires sensitive and reliable diagnostic methods for early detection.
The conventional way of diagnosing HLB is based on visual assessment of symptoms. Typical symptoms of HLB of infected trees include blotchy mottle and/or variegated chlorosis of leaves, pale yellow leaves, and stunting. The leaves become upright, followed by leaf drop from the laminar or petiole abscission zones, and at later stages extensive twig dieback occurs . Often small-sized, lop-sided, and bitter tasting fruits with aborted seeds are found on HLB-affected trees. However, these symptoms seem not to be HLB specific since a Phytoplasma sp. was reported to cause very similar symptoms in citrus in Brazil . It is also reported that Las can survive for years in citrus before showing obvious symptoms. HLB symptoms also vary with environment and infected trees become less symptomatic under high temperature during the summer.
To overcome the shortcomings of symptom-based diagnosis, various detection methods have been developed in recent years. DNA probes, conventional and Quantitative PCR assays, electron microscope, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and biological indexing have been reported to be used for successful diagnosis [3, 7, 8]. In recent years, diagnosis of HLB based on PCR methodology (Conventional PCR and Quantitative PCR) has gained popularity due to its sensitivity and reliability [7, 8]. In this study, we investigated the copy numbers of the 16S rDNA and 16S rRNA of Las and the implication of improving the diagnosis of HLB for early detection using either QPCR or QRT-PCR.
Plant materials and extraction of DNA and RNA
Citrus leaf samples were collected from the HLB symptomatic and asymptomatic sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) trees (about 5-year-old) from one citrus grove which has been confirmed to be infected with Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus previously in Polk County, Florida, USA. Only leaves with typical blotchy mottle symptoms were used for symptomatic samples. The leaves were washed in tap water and surface sterilized in 35% bleach (2% active Cl-) and 70% (v/v) ethanol for 2 min each and rinsed three times with sterile water. Midribs were separated from leaf samples and cut into pieces. 0.1 g of tissue (fresh weight) from each sample was frozen in liquid nitrogen for DNA and RNA extraction, respectively. Midribs were chosen since they are phloem rich as Las is known to be phloem limited. DNA from plant samples was extracted using the Wizard® Genomic DNA purification kit (Promega, Madison, WI, USA) following the protocol for isolating genomic DNA from plant tissue and dissolved in 100 μl of water. RNA was extracted using the RNeasy mini kit (Qiagen, Valencia, CA, USA) following the manufacturers' instructions and dissolved in 100 μl of water.
Quantitative PCR (QPCR)
All QPCR assays were performed using ABI PRISM 7500 Sequence detection system (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA, USA). The Primer/probe set, CQULA04F-CQULAP10-CQULA04R, was used to target the β-operon region of Las. For 16S rDNA, QPCR was carried out with the primers and probe HLBas/HLBr/HLBp for Las essentially as described in Li et al. . Both primer/probe sets have been successfully used for diagnosis and detection. The specificity of primer/probe CQULA04F-CQULAP10-CQULA04R and HLBas/HLBr/HLBp has been confirmed previously [7, 8]. The probes were labelled with 56-FAM as a reporter fluorescent dye at the 5' end and with 3BHQ_1 as the quencher dye. QPCR reactions were performed according to the condition described previously with modification . Briefly, QPCR reactions were performed in a 25 μL reaction using 2× Quantitect Probe PCR master mix (Qiagen, Valencia, CA, USA), 0.8 μM of each primer, 0.4 μM of probe (IDT, Coralville, IA, USA), and an appropriate amount of template DNA. The PCR conditions were 50°C for 2 min, 95°C for 15 min, 45 cycles of each 94°C for 15 sec and 60°C for 1 min. Each individual QPCR assay had at least 3 replications. Results were analyzed using ABI Prism software. Raw data were analyzed using the default settings (threshold = 0.2) of the software. DNA samples extracted from healthy citrus were used as negative control.
Quantitative Reverse Transcriptional PCR (QRT-PCR)
QRT-PCR was used to detect Las 16S rRNA or beta-operon RNA using the QuantiTect Probe RT-PCR Kit (Qiagen) following the manufacturer's instructions. The same primer/probe HLBas/HLBr/HLBp and CQULA04F-CQULAP10-CQULA04R for QPCR targeting 16S rDNA and β-operon region were used for QRT-PCR assays, respectively . Reverse transcription was conducted at 50°C for 30 min with 1 μl of total RNA as template, then followed by initial activation of HotStarTaq DNA Polymerase (95°C, 15 min). Totally, 45 cycles of reactions (94°C for 15 sec, 60°C for 60 sec) were performed. Eight samples were used for QRT-PCR assays and each individual QRT-PCR assay had 3 technical repeats. For dilution study, head to head study was conducted for DNA and RNA extracted from the same set of samples. Both DNA and RNA were diluted from 10 to 107 times and 1 μl of DNA or RNA was used for each QPCR or QRT-PCR assay, respectively.
Comparing the gene copy number of 16S rDNA and beta-operon
Among the bacterial species, the 16S rDNA copy number varies considerably from 1 to 15 [9, 10]. Thus, it is possible to target the high copy number gene for better sensitivity. QPCR has been shown to be able to determine the rDNA copy . In this study, the standard equations, y = -0.3101x + 12.09 and y = -0.288x + 11.61, which were modified from the equations previously developed for 16S rDNA and beta-operon of Las respectively, to fit the conditions used in this study, were used to quantify the Las bacterial population as genome equivalents [7, 8, 12]. Totally, eight samples were used for calculation. For the same set of samples, the Las population based on the 16S rDNA method averaged 3.15 ± 0.11 (SD) of that calculated by beta-operon method. Thus it is estimated that the copy number of 16S rDNA is three times of beta-operon. Examination of all sequenced bacteria indicated that beta-operon is one copy in bacteria. If this is also true for Ca. Liberibacter species, the copy number for Las 16S rDNA should be three copies. By the time this manuscript was accepted, it is also learned that Ca. Liberibacter americanus contains three copies of 16S rDNA [N. Wulff pers. comm.]. The draft genome sequence of Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus is also in accordance with our result [Y.P. Duan pers. comm.]. Thus compared to QPCR assays targeting beta-operon, a 16S rDNA based QPCR assay is likely to be more sensitive due to its higher copy number per genome.
Quantitative Reverse Transcriptional PCR (QRT-PCR) targeting 16S rRNA
Comparison of copy numbers of 16S rDNA, beta-operon DNA, 16S rRNA, and beta-operon RNA
16S DNA/beta-operon DNA
16S RNA/16S DNA
beta-operon DNA/beta-operon RNA
Comparison of QRT-PCR and QPCR assays
Ct value change
Our previous study indicated that a minimum bacterial concentration was required for HLB symptom development in studying the population of Las in symptomatic and asymptomatic leaves . Thus improvement of detection sensitivity of Las could lead to early detection of HLB without relying on symptoms on citrus.
Our result indicates that Las contains three copies of 16S rDNA. The copy number of 16S rRNA of Las in planta averaged about 7.8 times of 16S rDNA. QRT-PCR targeting 16S rRNA was 10 times more sensitive than QPCR targeting 16S rDNA. Detection sensitivity of HLB could be improved through the following approaches: using 16S rDNA based primers/probe in the QPCR assays; and using QRT-PCR assays targeting 16S rRNA.
This work has been supported by Florida Citrus Production Research Advisory Council (FCPRAC).
- Jagoueix S, Bové JM, Garnier M: The phloem-limited bacterium of greening disease of citrus is a member of alpha subdivision of the Proteobacteria. Int J Syst Bacteriol. 1994, 44: 379-386.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Murray RGE, Schleifer KH: Taxonomic notes: a proposal for recording the properties of putative taxa of procaryotes. Int J Syst Bacteriol. 1994, 44: 174-176.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bové JM: Huanglongbing: a destructive, newly-emerging, century-old disease of citrus. J Plant Pathol. 2006, 88: 7-37.Google Scholar
- da Graça JV: Citrus greening disease. Ann Rev Phytopathol. 1991, 29: 109-136. 10.1146/annurev.py.29.090191.000545.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Teixeira DC, Ayres J, Danet JL, Jagoueix-Eveillard S, Saillard C, Bové JM: First report of a huanglongbing-like disease of citrus in São Paulo, Brazil, and association of a new Liberibacter species, "Candidatus Liberibacter americanus" with the disease. Plant Dis. 2005, 89: 107-10.1094/PD-89-0107A.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Teixeira DC, Wulff NA, Martins EC, Kitajima EW, Bassanezi R, Ayres AJ, Eveillard S, Saillard C, Bové JM: A phytoplasma closely related to the Pigeon Pea Witches'-Broom Phytoplasma (16Sr IX) is associated with citrus huanglongbing symptoms in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Phytopathology. 2008, 98: 977-984. 10.1094/PHYTO-98-9-0977.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Li W, Hartung JS, Levy L: Quantitative real-time PCR for detection and identification of Candidatus Liberibacter species associated with citrus huanglongbing. J Microbiol Meth. 2006, 66: 104-115. 10.1016/j.mimet.2005.10.018.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wang Z, Yin Y, Hu H, Yuan Q, Peng G, Xia Y: Development and application of molecular-based diagnosis for 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus', the causal pathogen of citrus huanglongbing. Plant Pathol. 2006, 55: 630-8. 10.1111/j.1365-3059.2006.01438.x.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Klappenbach JA, Dunbar JM, Schmidt TS: rRNA operon copy number reflects ecological strategies of bacteria. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2000, 66: 1328-1333. 10.1128/AEM.66.4.1328-1333.2000.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Charles H, Ishikawa H: Physical and genetic map of the genome of Buchnera, the primary endosymbiont of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisun. J Mol Evol. 1999, 48: 142-150. 10.1007/PL00006452.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lee C, Kim J, Shin SG, Hwang S: Absolute and relative QPCR quantification of plasmid copy number in Escherichia coli. J Biotechnol. 2006, 123: 273-280. 10.1016/j.jbiotec.2005.11.014.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Tatineni S, Sagaram US, Gowda S, Robertson CJ, Dawson WO, Iwanami T, Wang N: In plant distribution of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' as revealed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time PCR. Phytopathology. 2008, 98: 592-599. 10.1094/PHYTO-98-5-0592.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Zwirglmaier K, Ludwig W, Schleifer KH: Recognition of individual genes in a single bacterial cell by fluorescence in situ hybridization – RING-FISH. Mol Microbiol. 2004, 51: 89-96. 10.1046/j.1365-2958.2003.03834.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Trividi P, Sagaram US, Brlansky RH, Rogers M, Stelinski LL, Oswalt C, Kim JS, Wang N: Quantification of viable Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus in hosts using Quantitative PCR with the aid of ethidium monoazide (EMA). Eur J Plant Path. 2009Google Scholar
- Kemp PF, Lee S, LaRoche J: Estimation of the growth rate of slowly growing marine bacteria from RNA content. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1993, 59: 2594-2601.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Nocker A, Camper AK: Selective removal of DNA from dead cells of mixed bacterial communities by use of ethidium monoazide. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2006, 72: 1997-2004. 10.1128/AEM.72.3.1997-2004.2006.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rudi K, Moen B, Drømtrop SM, Holck AL: Use of ethidium monoazide and PCR in combination for quantification of viable and dead cells in complex samples. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2005, 71: 1018-1024. 10.1128/AEM.71.2.1018-1024.2005.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wang S, Levin RE: Discrimination of viable Vibrio vulnificus cells from dead cells in real-time PCR. J Microbiol Methods. 2006, 64: 1-8. 10.1016/j.mimet.2005.04.023.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.