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Table 7 Univariate and multivariable risk factors for kidney disease status using multinomial regression

From: Prevalence and risk factors of kidney disease in urban Karachi: baseline findings from a community cohort study

Variables Mild kidney disease Moderate kidney disease
  Prevalence odds ratio (95% CI) p value Prevalence odds ratio (95% CI) p value
UNIVARIATE     
Age, yrs 1.02 (0.99-1.04) 0.22 1.1 (1.07-1.13) 0.000**
Diabetes mellitus status     
 Diabetic 2.7 (0.9-7.8) 0.07 3.0 (1.02-8.61) 0.047*
 Non-diabetic Ref   Ref  
Hypertension status     
 Hypertensive 1.4 (0.6-3.4) 0.49 3.9 (1.8-8.7) 0.001*
 Normotensive Ref   Ref  
Smoking status     
 Regular smoker 1.05 (0.3-3.7) 0.94 5.2 (2.2-12.4) 0.000**
 Non-smoker Ref   Ref  
Gender     
 Male 1.7 (0.8-3.6) 0.18 1.4 (0.7-3.2) 0.4
 Female Ref   Ref  
HDL 1.011 (0.97-1.06) 0.62 0.95 (0.89-1.01) 0.09
MULTIVARIABLE Adj POR (95% CI) p value Adj POR (95% CI) p value
Age, yrs 1.01 (0.98-1.04) 0.49 1.08 (1.05-1.12) 0.000**
Diabetes mellitus status     
 Diabetic 2.0 (0.4-9.6) 0.4 0.78 (0.16-3.9) 0.77
 Non-diabetic Ref   Ref  
Hypertension status     
 Hypertensive 1.08 (0.4-2.9) 0.9 1.6 (0.6-4.1) 0.4
 Normotensive Ref   Ref  
Smoking status     
 Regular smoker 0.9 (0.2-3.3) 0.9 2.6 (0.9-7.1) 0.07
 Non-smoker Ref   Ref  
  1. The reference category is: absence of kidney disease.
  2. *p value < 0.05; **p value < 0.0001 calculated by multinomial logistic regression.
  3. Abbreviation: POR Prevalence Odds Ratio.