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Table 9 Multivariable analyses of risk factors for kidney disease using logistic regression; three explanatory models

From: Prevalence and risk factors of kidney disease in urban Karachi: baseline findings from a community cohort study

Models Kidney diseasea
  aPOR (95% CI) P value
Model 1:   
Age groups   
 40+ yrs 3.2 (1.7-6.0) 0.000**
 <=39 Ref  
Smoking and hypertension status   
 Normotensive AND smoker 1.6 ( 0.6-4.0) 0.35
 Hypertensive AND non smoker 1.5 ( 0.7-3.2) 0.28
 Hypertensive AND smoker 4.8 ( 1.1-20.3) 0.034**
 Normotensive AND non smoker Ref  
Gender   
 Male 1.6 (0.8-3.0) 0.11
 Female Ref  
Model 2:   
Diabetes and hypertension status   
 Normotensive AND diabetic 1.9 (0.58-6.2) 0.29
 Hypertensive AND non diabetic 2.2 (1.1-4.5) 0.03*
 Hypertensive AND diabetic 6.4 (2.0-20.5) 0.002*
 Normotensive AND non diabetic Ref  
Gender   
 Male 1.8 (0.97-3.2) 0.06
 Female Ref  
Model 3:   
Age groups   
 40+ yrs 3.4 (1.8-6.3) 0.000**
 <=39 Ref  
Diabetes and smoking status   
 Non diabetic AND smoker 1.8 (0.7-4.2) 0.2
 Diabetic AND non smoker 1.6 (0.6-4.4) 0.3
 Diabetic AND smoker 3.1 (0.6-16.4) 0.2
 Non diabetic AND non smoker Ref  
Gender   
 Male 1.5 (0.8-2.8) 0.2
 Female Ref  
  1. a. The reference category is: No Kidney Disease.
  2. *p value < 0.05; **p value < 0.0001 calculated by logistic regression.
  3. Abbreviations are: CI-Confidence Interval, Ref-reference.