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Table 2 Maternal and infant characteristics of responders via postal questionnaire vs. responders via telephone interview or online to 2-year neurodevelopmental follow-up

From: Telephone interviews and online questionnaires can be used to improve neurodevelopmental follow-up rates

Characteristic Postal completion Telephone or online completion RR [95% CI] for telephone/online p
Maternal characteristics (n = 1183) (n = 109)   
Age at birth of study child, mean (SD) 30.6 (5.6) 30.8 (5.2) 1.01 [0.98 to 1.04] 0.68
Non-white ethnic group, n (%) 220 (18.6) 30 (27.8) 1.60 [1.08 to 2.38] 0.02
Non-English first language, n (%) 144 (12.4) 21 (19.6) 1.63 [1.04 to 2.56] 0.03
Unsupported mother, n (%) 119 (10.1) 8 (7.3) 0.73 [0.36 to 1.46] 0.37
Highest educational qualification, n (%)     
None or secondary education 385 (33.1) 30 (27.5) Baseline -
Tertiary education 690 (59.2) 70 (64.2) 1.27 [0.84 to 1.92] 0.25
Other 90 (7.7) 9 (8.3) 1.26 [0.62 to 2.56] 0.53
Occupational status, n (%)a     
Managerial, professional or intermediate 689 (58.6) 53 (50.0) Baseline -
Semi-routine or routine 164 (14.0) 20 (18.9) 1.52 [0.93 to 2.48] 0.09
No occupation 322 (27.4) 33 (31.1) 1.30 [0.86 to 1.97] 0.21
Difficult financial situation, n (%) 71 (6.0) 9 (8.3) 1.35 [0.71 to 2.58] 0.36
Poor mental health, n (%) 123 (10.4) 18 (16.7) 1.63 [1.01 to 2.61] 0.05
Poor general health, n (%) 73 (6.2) 10 (9.2) 1.47 [0.80 to 2.71] 0.22
Infant characteristics (n = 1296) (n = 126)   
Late/moderately preterm, n (%)b 607 (46.8) 44 (34.9) 0.64 [0.45, 0.90] 0.01
Birthweight, n (%)     
Low birthweight (1501-2500 g) 372 (28.7) 32 (25.4) 0.86 [0.59 to 1.27] 0.45
Very low birthweight (≤1500 g) 16 (1.2) 2 (1.6) 1.21 [0.32 to 4.53] 0.78
Fetal growth restriction, n (%)c 242 (18.7) 31 (24.6) 1.37 [0.94 to 2.02] 0.11
Multiple birth, n (%) 229 (17.7) 33 (26.2) 1.57 [1.08 to 2.28] 0.02
Any respiratory support, n (%)d 95 (7.3) 5 (4.0) 0.55 [0.23 to 1.31] 0.17
Intra-cranial abnormality, n (%)e 11 (0.9) 1 (0.8) 0.94 [0.14 to 6.18] 0.95
Major congenital anomaly, n (%) 16 (1.2) 0 (0.0) - -
Any breast milk at discharge, n (%)f 916 (70.7) 85 (67.5) 0.87 [0.61 to 1.24] 0.45
  1. aClassified using UK National Statistics Socio-Economic Classification (NS-SEC). bLate and moderately preterm is birth at 32-36 completed weeks of gestation. cFetal growth restriction calculated using customised antenatal growth charts [21]. dAny respiratory support includes infants who were ventilated or received non-invasive respiratory support. eIntra-cranial abnormality includes Grade III or IV intra-ventricular haemorrhage (IVH), periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) and Grade II or III neonatal encephalopathy. fIncludes breast milk fed by any method.