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Table 5 Log-linear generalized estimating equations of expenditure on health

From: Out-of-pocket expenditure and its determinants in the context of private healthcare sector expansion in sub-Saharan Africa urban cities: evidence from household survey in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

  Model 1 Model 2
Coef. SE 95 % CI p value Coef. SE 95 % CI p value
Age, year (>64 = ref)
 0–4 −0.20 0.21 −0.60; 0.21 0.348 −0.17 0.16 −0.49; 0.15 0.289
 5–14 −0.08 0.19 −0.45; 0.29 0.672 −0.13 0.14 −0.41; 0.15 0.371
 15–64 −0.03 0.16 −0.034; 0.29 0.870 −0.06 0.13 −0.30; 0.19 0.653
Gender (male = ref)
 Female 0.00 0.06 −0.13; 0.12 0.949 −0.01 0.05 −0.11; 0.09 0.882
Household size (>3 persons = ref)
 1 person 1.18 0.28 0.63; 1.74 <0.001 0.86 0.24 0.38; 1.34 <0.001
 2–3 persons 0.86 0.32 0.22; 1.49 0.008 0.63 0.27 0.10; 1.16 0.020
Filiation (other member = ref)
 Household head and spouse −0.09 0.11 −0.32; 0.13 0.415 0.14 0.09 −0.04; 0.32 0.140
 Son-daughter/grandson-daughter −0.13 0.13 −0.40; 0.13 0.333 0.02 0.10 −0.017; 0.21 0.820
Type of disease (other conditions = ref)
 Reporting malaria −0.86 0.12 −1.09; −0.63 <0.001 −0.64 0.11 −0.85; −0.43 <0.001
Insurance (uninsured = ref)
 Insured 0.56 0.22 0.13; 1.00 0.010 0.51 0.17 0.17; 0.85 0.003
Type of providera
 Self-treatment         
 Public      0.97 0.15 0.67; 1.27 <0.001
 Private 0.48 0.11 0.27; 0.69 <0.001 1.41 0.15 1.11; 1.71 <0.001
Total observations (n)     1044     1573
  1. All estimates are adjusted for each covariate for the effects of the other covariates
  2. aIn model 1, we exclude persons who self-treated and used public provider as reference
  3. aIn model 2 we included the entire sample and used self-treatment as a reference for public and private provider choice
  4. CI confidence interval, SE standard error