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Table 4 The risk of involvement in a motor vehicle collision by medication exposure

From: Medication use and the risk of motor vehicle collision in West Virginia drivers 65 years of age and older: a case-crossover study

Medication Number of individuals taking medication (N) 1:4 Matched control periodsa
Model 1 OR (95 % CI) Model 2 OR (95 % CI)
Anticholesteremic
 Simvastatin 12 1.00 (0.12, 8.17) 0.42 (0.03,07.23)
Anticoagulants
 Clopidogrel 10 10.73 (1.19, 96.67) 7.62 (0.48, 122.10)
 Warfarin 10 0.72 (0.06, 9.04) 0.30 (0.08, 1.22)
Anticonvulsants
 Gabapentin 15 2.69 (0.59, 12.32) 1.32 (0.24, 7.17)
Antidepressants
 Citalopram 10 3.01 (0.31, 29.65) 3.21 (0.24, 42.50)
Antihyperglycemics
 Insulin 12 15.76 (1.78, 139.61) 2.63 (0.14, 48.72)
Antihypertensive
 Furosemide 12 0.50 (0.08, 3.22) 0.81 (0.06, 10.62)
 Hydrochlorothiazide 13 12.35 (1.35, 113.06) 15.01 (0.76, 296.60)
 Lisinopril 25 1.56 (0.43, 5.69) 0.27 (0.05, 1.60)
 Metoprolol 29 5.29 (1.31, 21.38) 1.16 (0.23, 5.79)
Muscle relaxants
 Albuterol 11 0.44 (0.06, 3.20) 0.25 (0.02, 3.34)
Narcotic analgesics
 Hydrocodone 15 1.32 (0.36, 4.92) 0.37 (0.04, 3.79)
 Tramadol 11 10.56 (1.17, 95.51) 11.41 (1.27, 102.15)
Sleep medications
 Zolpidem 10 4.20 (0.73, 24.13) 1.42 (0.66, 3.00)
 Steroids
Fluticasone 11 0.56 (0.08, 3.89) 0.41 (0.04, 4.85)
 Prednisone 12 0.12 (0.01, 1.07) 0.19 (0.02, 1.82)
Vasodilators
 Nitroglycerin 12 2.54 (0.42, 15.23) 1.27 (0.07, 23.82)
Other drugs
 Alendronate 10 1.15 (0.22, 6.04) 0.13 (0.01, 1.78)
Combination drugs
 Oxycodone and Acetaminophen 16 0.61 (0.18, 2.00) 0.17 (0.02, 1.63)
  1. aConditional logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratios and 95 % CI. Each case’s medication exposure during the 14 day risk period immediately before the crash was matched to four separate control periods up to 1 year before the collision to assess if medication use during the risk period was associated with an increase of motor vehicle collision compared to control periods. Model 1 is the crude estimate (i.e. unadjusted) while Model 2 was adjusted for the number of medications a person was taking during each case and control period