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Table 1 Physico-chemical parameters (pH, moisture, EC, TDS, colour and colour intensity) of various honey varieties

From: Evaluation of physicochemical and antioxidant properties of two stingless bee honeys: a comparison with Apis mellifera honey from Nsukka, Nigeria

Honey source Samples Parameters
pH Moisture (%) EC (mS/cm) TDS (ppm) Colour (nm) ABS450 (mAU,50w/v)
Apis mellifera I 4.46 ± 0.095 11.870 ± 0.703 0.163 ± 0.0153 264.1 ± 0.59 1.986 ± 0.001 961.33 ± 0.58
II 4.22 ± 0.077 11.537 ± 0.454 0.217 ± 0.1155 282.0 ± 0.25 2.102 ± 0.001 988.33 ± 1.15
III 4.04 ± 0.124 11.817 ± 0.301 0.240 ± 0.0200 316.3 ± 0.06 2.108 ± 0.001 1006.33 ± 1.53
Mean 4.24 ± 0.20 b 11.74 ± 0.47 a 0.207 ± 0.04 a 287.46 ± 22.95 b 2.065 ± 0.06 b 985.33 ± 19.64 c
Hypotrigona sp. I 3.85 ± 0.111 18.310 ± 0.900 0.317 ± 0.0058 399.1 ± 0.35 2.103 ± 0.001 724.33 ± 0.58
II 3.65 ± 0.036 17.053 ± 0.489 0.270 ± 0.0200 349.0 ± 0.36 1.861 ± 0.001 630.00 ± 1.73
III 3.75 ± 0.042 17.127 ± 0.239 0.323 ± 0.0493 362.0 ± 0.15 1.886 ± 0.001 682.67 ± 0.58
Mean 3.75 ± 0.11 a 17.50 ± 0.80 c 0.303 ± 0.04 b 370.01 ± 22.51 c 1.950 ± 0.12 b 679.00 ± 40.95 a
Melipona sp. I 3.80 ± 0.027 13.507 ± 0.047 0.217 ± 0.0152 209.0 ± 0.31 1.533 ± 0.000 762.33 ± 2.31
II 4.18 ± 0.066 15.203 ± 0.186 0.240 ± 0.0100 211.7 ± 0.15 2.012 ± 0.001 792.33 ± 1.15
III 4.65 ± 0.053 12.863 ± 0.221 0.257 ± 0.0153 221.2 ± 0.15 1.632 ± 0.001 805.33 ± 0.58
Mean 4.21 ± 0.37 b 13.86 ± 1.06 b 0.238 ± 0.02 a 214.00 ± 5.55 a 1.726 ± 0.22 a 786.67 ± 19.14 b
  1. Results were expressed as mean ± standard deviation of duplicate experiments. Means were compared by using One way ANOVA and Games-Howell Post Hoc Multiple Comparisons. In each column, mean values with different letters (superscripts “a–c”) indicate significant differences (p < 0.05)
  2. EC, electrical conductivity; TDS, total dissolved solids; Colour (absorbance at 560 nm); ABS450, colour intensity. Hypotrigona sp. honey—Okotobo honey and Melipona sp. honey—Ifufu/Ihuhu honey