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Table 2 Biochemical properties of the honeys

From: Evaluation of physicochemical and antioxidant properties of two stingless bee honeys: a comparison with Apis mellifera honey from Nsukka, Nigeria

Honey source Samples Parameters
Total sugar contents [(%) g/g] Reducing sugar [(%) g/g)] Sucrose [(%) g/g] HMF (Mg/kg) Total protein contents (g/kg) Total acidity (meq/kg) Free acidity (meq/kg) Lactone acidity (meq/kg)
Apis mellifera I 79.61 ± 0.03 77.26 ± 0.03 2.35 ± 0.01 13.17 ± 0.05 3.05 ± 0.05 21.93 ± 0.03 18.31 ± 0.11 3.62 ± 0.09
II 70.17 ± 0.21 67.75 ± 0.19 2.42 ± 0.02 11.97 ± 0.05 3.11 ± 0.02 22.07 ± 0.10 19.46 ± 0.43 2.94 ± 0.08
III 68.32 ± 0.01 66.00 ± 0.02 2.32 ± 0.01 16.12 ± 0.12 3.94 ± 0.01 20.96 ± 0.32 18.24 ± 0.25 2.71 ± 0.07
Mean 72.70 ± 7.5 b 70.34 ± 7.49 b 2.36 ± 0.05 b 13.75 ± 1.85 b 13.75 ± 1.85 b 21.65 ± 0.55 b 18.67 ± 0.64 b 3.09 ± 0.41 b
Hypotrigona sp. I 62.72 ± 0.01 60.72 ± 0.02 1.99 ± 0.02 16.39 ± 0.08 6.58 ± 0.03 35.70 ± 0.22 30.85 ± 0.29 4.85 ± 0.10
II 66.32 ± 0.01 64.64 ± 0.02 1.67 ± 0.02 16.29 ± 0.04 4.99 ± 0.04 35.08 ± 0.30 30.89 ± 0.22 4.19 ± 0.19
III 57.94 ± 0.03 56.12 ± 0.04 1.82 ± 0.02 17.07 ± 0.05 5.67 ± 0.02 35.93 ± 0.07 30.34 ± 0.03 5.59 ± 0.06
Mean 62.32 ± 5.25 a 60.49 ± 5.21 a 1.83 ± 0.14 a 16.58 ± 0.37 c 16.58 ± 0.37 c 35.57 ± 0.42 c 30.69 ± 0.32 a 4.88 ± 0.61 c
Melipona sp. I 80.53 ± 1.59 75.73 ± 2.25 4.79 ± 0.95 5.50 ± 0.03 2.97 ± 0.04 12.43 ± 0.10 10.63 ± 0.16 1.80 ± 0.07
II 79.55 ± 0.44 73.72 ± 0.46 5.82 ± 0.02 5.65 ± 0.04 3.94 ± 0.01 12.95 ± 0.07 11.62 ± 0.12 1.32 ± 0.07
III 82.04 ± 0.19 77.47 ± 0.20 4.57 ± 0.02 5.35 ± 0.12 3.78 ± 0.01 12.40 ± 0.03 11.43 ± 0.05 1.04 ± 0.07
Mean 80.71 ± 1.37 c 75.64 ± 1.99 c 5.06 ± 0.75 c 5.50 ± 1.15 a 5.50 ± 1.15 a 12.59 ± 0.27 a 11.23 ± 0.47 c 1.39 ± 0.34 a
  1. Results were expressed as mean ± standard deviation of duplicate experiments. Means were compared using One way ANOVA and Games-Howell Post Hoc Multiple Comparisons. In each column, mean values with different letters (superscripts “a–c”) indicate significant differences (p < 0.05)
  2. HMF, hydroxymethyl furfural. Hypotrigona sp. honey—Okotobo honey and Melipona sp. honey—Ifufu/Ihuhu honey