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Table 3 Antioxidant properties of the honeys

From: Evaluation of physicochemical and antioxidant properties of two stingless bee honeys: a comparison with Apis mellifera honey from Nsukka, Nigeria

Honey source Samples Parameters
Total phenol contents (mgGAE/kg) Flavonoids contents (mgCEQ/kg) Proline contents (mg/kg) Ascorbic acid contents (mg/kg) AEAC contents (mg/kg) FRAP (µM Fe(II)/100 g
Apis mellifera I 409.73 ± 1.95 57.00 ± 0.16 338.89 ± 0.13 157.44 ± 0.49 304.51 ± 0.16 525.68 ± 0.83
II 432.07 ± 0.10 62.35 ± 1.09 339.21 ± 0.01 161.96 ± 0.05 299.22 ± 8.44 508.45 ± 17.51
III 475.68 ± 0.41 65.82 ± 0.29 481.27 ± 0.03 149.48 ± 0.28 290.67 ± 0.58 500.06 ± 0.05
Mean 439.16 ± 29.06 b 61.72 ± 3.89 b 386.46 ± 71.11 b 156.29 ± 5.48 b 298.13 ± 7.38 a 511.40 ± 14.31 b
Hypotrigona sp. I 531.10 ± 0.05 52.52 ± 0.03 498.52 ± 0.04 169.27 ± 0.04 343.04 ± 0.89 668.53 ± 0.23
II 522.91 ± 0.10 28.19 ± 0.03 401.26 ± 0.26 153.80 ± 0.07 342.34 ± 0.29 667.24 ± 1.22
III 375.82 ± 0.25 43.41 ± 0.22 390.73 ± 0.25 162.01 ± 0.23 341.62 ± 0.92 664.87 ± 0.22
Mean 527.41 ± 3.60 c 41.37 ± 10.65 a 430.17 ± 51.45 b 161.69 ± 6.70 c 342.33 ± 0.78 b 666.88 ± 1.73 c
Melipona sp. I 386.09 ± 0.11 82.78 ± 0.39 281.28 ± 0.06 149.69 ± 0.27 293.44 ± 0.49 439.15 ± 0.34
II 354.03 ± 0.08 83.79 ± 0.06 276.11 ± 0.03 151.62 ± 0.34 297.49 ± 3.77 424.28 ± 12.69
III 375.82 ± 0.25 92.60 ± 0.10 338.84 ± 0.07 144.31 ± 0.08 299.77 ± 1.35 417.36 ± 0.52
Mean 371.98 ± 14.18 a 86.39 ± 4.69 c 298.74 ± 3016 a 148.54 ± 3.29 a 296.99 ± 3.43 a 426.93 ± 11.55 a
  1. Results were expressed as mean ± standard deviation of duplicate experiments. Means were compared by using One way ANOVA and Games-Howell Post Hoc Multiple Comparisons. In each column, mean values with different letters (superscripts “a–c”) indicate significant differences (p < 0.05)
  2. GAE, gallic acid equivalent; CEQ, catechin equivalent; FRAP, ferric reducing/antioxidant power assay; AEAC, antioxidant equivalent—ascorbic acid assay. Hypotrigona sp. honey—Okotobo honey and Melipona sp. honey—Ifufu/Ihuhu honey