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Table 1 Socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of the study participants (N = 425)

From: Dyslipidaemia in a Black African diabetic population: burden, pattern and predictors

Variable N (%)
Age in years, median (IQR) 53 (43.5–62)
Gender, n (%)
 Male 140 (33.02)
 Female 284 (66.98)
Education level, n (%)
 None 38 (8.96)
 Primary 165 (38.92)
 Secondary 141 (33.25)
 Tertiary 79 (18.63)
Occupation, n (%)
 Employed 212 (50)
 Unemployed 212 (50)
Marital status, n (%)
 Married 259 (61.08)
 Cohabiting 10 (2.36)
 Single 47 (11.08)
 Divorced 41 (9.67)
 Widow/widowed 67 (15.80)
Place of residence
 Rural 136 (32.08)
 Urban 288 (67.92)
Study site
 Government 199 (46.82)
 Private 226 (53.18)
Smoking
 Yes 10 (2.35)
 No 415 (97.65)
Known HT
 Yes 292 (68.87)
 No 132 (31.13)
HIV co-existent
 Yes 17 (4.00)
 No 408 (96.00)
FH-DM
 Yes 264 (62.26)
 No 160 (37.74)
Type of DM
 Type 1 DM 55 (13.13)
 Type 2 DM 364 (86.87)
Drug history
 Diet alone 3 (0.71)
 Metformin alone 79 (18.59)
 Met + SU 127 (29.88)
 Met + SU + TZD 16 (3.76)
 Met + incretins 8 (1.88)
 Insulin alone/+ met 188 (44.34)
 Statins 89 (20.94)
Variable Median (IQR), N = 425
Age at diagnosis in years 47 (37–55)
Duration with DM in years 4.5 (2–10)
BMI in kg/m2 27 (23–30.6)
HbA1c (%) 9 (6.8–12.4)
LDLC in mmol/l 2.9 (2.3–3.84)
HDLC in mmol/l 1.19 (0.9–1.42)
TC in mmol/l 4.82 (4.1–5.71)
TGL in mmol/l 1.6 (1.23–2.2)
LDLC > 2.6 mmol/l 259 (60.9)
TC > 5 mmol/l 183 (43.1)
HDLC < 1 mmol/l 124 (29.2)
TGL > 1.7 mmol/l 179 (41.2)
TGL ≥ 5.7 mmol/l 5 (1.2)
Non HDLC < 3.4 mmol/l 167 (39.3)
TC/HDLC ratio < 4.5 mmol/l 235 (55.3)
All normal LDLC, TGL, TC and HDLC concentrations 5 (12)
SBP, mmHg 139 (124–155)
DBP, mmHg 80 (73–91)
  1. DM diabetes mellitus, HT hypertension, FH family history, SU sulphonylureas, Met metformin, TZD thiazolididiones, BMI body mass index, HbA1c glycated haemoglobin, LDLC low density lipoprotein cholesterol, HDLC high density lipoprotein cholesterol, TC total cholesterol, TGL triglycerides, SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure, IQR inter quartile range