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Table 2 Suboptimal LDLC concentrations in relation to socio-demographic and clinical characteristics at bivariable analysis

From: Dyslipidaemia in a Black African diabetic population: burden, pattern and predictors

Characteristic LDLC > 2.6 mmol/l LDLC ≤ 2.6 mmol/l OR 95% CI p value
Age, median (IQR) 55.5 (48–67) 53 (43–62) 1.01 (0.99–1.02) 0.224
Gender
 Male 71 (51.45) 67 (49.55) 1 0.001
 Female 188 (68.12) 88 (31.88) 2.02 (1.333.07)  
Type of hospital
 Government 133 (66.83) 66 (33.17) 1 0.084
 Private 126 (58.60) 89 (41.40) 0.76 (0.471.05)  
Place of residence
 Rural 85 (62.96) 50 (37.04) 1 0.906
 Urban 174 (62.37) 105 (37.63) 0.97 (0.64–1.49)  
Smoking
 Smoker 8 (88.89) 1 (11.11) 1 0.135
 Non smoker 251 (61.98) 154 (38.02) 0.20 (0.03–1.64)  
Occupation
 Employed 132 (64.08) 74 (35.92) 1 0.526
 Unemployed 127 (61.06) 81 (38.94) 0.88 (0.59–1.31)  
Co-existing HT
 Yes 191 (67.25) 93 (32.75) 1 0.004
 No 68 (52.31) 62 (47.69) 0.53 (0.35–0.82)  
DM type
 Type 1 DM 21 (38.18) 34 (61.82) 1 <0.005
 Type 2 DM 234 (66.10) 120 (33.90) 3.16 (1.76–5.68)  
Family history of DM
 Yes 170 (66.15) 87 (33.85) 1 0.054
 No 89 (56.69) 68 (43.31) 0.67 (0.45–1.01)  
HIV co-morbidity
 Yes 10 (58.82) 7 (41.18) 1 0.745
 No 249 (62.72) 148 (37.28) 1.18 (0.44–3.16)  
Median (IQR) age at diagnosis 53.5 (49–58) 46 (37–55) 1.01 (0.99–1.02) 0.379
 Median (IQR) years duration with DM. 3.5 (1–14) 4.5 (2–10) 1.02 (0.99–1.06) 0.165
 BMI in kg/m 2 median (IQR) 28.7 (25–34.3) 27 (23–30.6) 1.04 (1.00–1.07) 0.041
BP in mmHg, median (IQR)
 SBP 130 (20–150) 139 (24–156) 1.01 (1.00–1.02) 0.015
 DBP 70 (70–78) 80 (74–91) 1.02 (1.01–1.04) 0.002
 HbA1c (%), median (IQR) 8.95 (6.8–10.1) 9 (6.9–12.4) 0.98 (0.93–1.03) 0.488
Drugs
 Insulin therapy 106 (58.89) 74 (41.11) 1 0.113
 On OHA 151 (66.52) 76 (33.48) 1.39 (0.92–2.08)  
Statin therapy n (%)
 No 199 (60.86) 128 (39.14) 1 0.166
 Yes 60 (68.97) 27 (31.03) 0.70 (0.42–1.16)  
  1. DM diabetes mellitus, HT hypertension, FH family history, OHA oral hypoglycaemic agents, BMI body mass index, HbA1c glycated haemoglobin, SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure