Skip to content

Advertisement

  • Research note
  • Open Access

Socio-demographic factors and availability of piped fountains affect food hygiene practice of food handlers in Bahir Dar Town, northwest Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study

  • 1Email author,
  • 1,
  • 2,
  • 3,
  • 4 and
  • 5
BMC Research Notes201710:628

https://doi.org/10.1186/s13104-017-2965-2

  • Received: 16 July 2016
  • Accepted: 21 November 2017
  • Published:

Abstract

Background

Morbidity and mortality rates of food borne diseases are consistently highest in African due to poor food handling and sanitation practices. Thus, the study aimed to assess food handling practice and associated factors among food handlers of Restaurants in Bahir Dar Town, northwest, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted from December, 7/2012 to January, 2/2013 among food handlers working in 106 restaurants in Bahir Dar Town. A structured questionnaire composed of socio-demographic factors, food safety knowledge, working environmental characteristics and food hygiene practice of food handlers was employed to collect the data via interviewing and observations. Binary logistic regression model was fitted to assess factors associated with food hygiene practice after multi-collinearity and outlier were checked and data was clean. Both crude odds ratio (COR) and adjusted odds ratio (AOR) were estimated to show the strength of association. In multivariate analysis, variables with a P value of ≤ 0.05 were considered as statistical significant.

Results

About 67.6% [95% confidence interval (CI) 58.8, 76.4] of food handlers had good food hygiene practice, whereas 32.4% of food handlers had poor food hygiene practice. The odds of having good food hygiene practice was higher among food handlers who had received food safety training [AOR: 4.7, 95% CI 1.7, 12.8], had formal education [AOR: 6.4, 95% CI 3.5, 11.5] and work experiences greater than 2 years [AOR: 3.4, 95% CI 1.8, 6.4]. At last, food handlers working in restaurants which had piped fountains for hand wash were 2.1 times more likely to have good food hygiene practice[AOR: 2.1, 95% CI 1.1, 3.8].

Conclusion

In this study, the overall food hygiene practice of food handlers is not to the acceptable level. Therefore, endeavors ought to be reinforced to improve food hygiene practices of food handlers through intervention programs such as training and education. Also emphasis should be given on the accessibility of piped fountains for the better food handling practice of food handlers.

Keywords

  • Food hygiene practice
  • Food handlers
  • Restaurants
  • Ethiopia

Background

Globally, every year billions of people are at high risk and millions fall ill; many die as a result of consuming unsafe food [1]. More than 200 known diseases have been transmitted through unsafe food [2]. As a result, around 2.0 billion illnesses are associated with food borne diseases [1]. Concerning low income countries, food born disease causes 2 million deaths. Also, it is related to high rate of hospitalizations and treatment cost [1, 3, 4]. In particular, the highest rate of morbidity and mortality rates are consistently reported in African. Poor food handling and sanitation practices, inadequate food safety laws, weak regulatory systems, lack of financial resources to invest on safety equipments and poor literacy status of food-handlers are some of the attributors augmenting the adverse consequences of food born disease [1, 35].

Obviously, food handlers play a critical role in ensuring food hygiene in the food establishments [6, 7]. Nevertheless, 10–20% of food-borne diseases are due to contamination of food by food handlers [8]. This is mainly due to poor hygienic status of food handlers, improper cooking procedures and unsafe storage and handling of food and equipments, which paves the way for pathogens to come into contact with food and cause illness in consumers [912]. Cognizant of these problems, the World Health Organization (WHO) established five keys to safer food manual to educate food handlers about their responsibilities for food safety [10]. Therefore, understanding of food safety procedures and potential factors that cause food borne illness are critical for all food handlers in the prevention and control of food borne illness [10, 13]. Different factors associated with the level of food hygiene practice among food handlers have been identified in different study settings. Accordingly, advanced age [14], divorced marital status [15], good knowledge on food safety and formal education [16, 17], work experience [14], food safety training [18] and monthly income [15] are positively associated with food hygiene practice. Furthermore, the environmental factors, such as toilet facility, liquid and solid waste management, water supply, and infestation of vectors are found related to the level of food hygienic practice of food handlers [15, 19].

In Ethiopia there is no reliable information showing magnitudes of food borne illness related to inappropriate food handling s in food establishments. However, there are noticeably high insanitary conditions in food establishments, including in the capital city, Addis Ababa.

On the other hand, helminthes, dysentery and diarrheal disease are among the top 10 leading causes of outpatient health service visits, which can be effectively prevented with provision of safe food and adequate water supply [2023]. Bahir Dar Town, the capital of Amhara regional state is showing rapid increase in urbanization, industrialization, one of the tourist destinations, and center of training and conference with the resultant increment in the number of restaurants. Accordingly, the number of people eating outside their homes is expected to increase, and this can increase the risk of food borne diseases. Therefore, providing evidence on food handling practice and its determinant will have a crucial role in improving food hygienic practices for food handlers working in restaurants. However, literatures are limited in Ethiopia, especially in the study area. Therefore, this study aimed to assess food handling practice and associated factors among food handlers of restaurants in Bahir Dar Town, northwest Ethiopia.

Methods

Study design and setting

A cross-sectional study was conducted from December 2012 to January 2013 among food handlers working in 106 restaurants in Bahir Dar Town. Bahir Dar Town, the capital of Amhara National Regional State, is located 565 kms from Addis Ababa, the capital city of Ethiopia. According to 2010 census, the population size of the town was estimated at 256,999 [24].

Study participants and sampling procedure

All food handlers, in the kitchen or serving in dinning, working in 106 restaurants of Bahir Dar Town were included in the study. Sample size was determined using a single population proportion formula by considering the following assumptions; expected prevalence of good food hygiene practice as 50, 95% level of confidence and 5% margins of error(w). Adding 10% non-response the final minimum sample size was 422. Regarding to the sampling technique, before hand, the total list of restaurants (110) and food handlers (782) were obtained from trade and industry Office of Bahir Dar Town. Then, the number and list of food handlers in each restaurant was obtained from each restaurant owner or manager during data collection. Food handlers were selected based on the proportion (422/782 * 100 = 53%) to the size of food handlers in each restaurant. A minimum of one food handlers from kitchen or serving in the dining, per restaurant, was selected. But, in the presence of more than one food handlers in a single food preparation and/or service area, selection was done by lottery method. At the end of data collection the total number of restaurants and food handlers in the Town was 106 and 789, respectively. Later on, 417 food handlers working in restaurants were included in the analysis.

Data collection tools and procedure

A structured questionnaire composed of socio-demographic factors, food safety knowledge, working environment characteristics and food hygiene practice was employed to collect the data via face to face interview and observation. The questionnaire was designed from standardized food and drink establishments’ inspection checklist in Ethiopia and by reviewing different literatures. To maintain its consistency, the questionnaire was originally prepared in English, and translated to Amharic, then retranslated to English. Seven diplomas in public and environmental health and two BSc environmental health experts were recruited as data collector and field supervisor, respectively. One day training regarding the objective of the study, interview and inspection techniques, and confidentiality of information was given to data collectors and supervisors. Shortly after, the questionnaire was pre-tested on 5% of the total sample out of the study area. To maintain the quality of data, the investigators and supervisors were carried out regular supervision, spot-checking, and reviewing the completed questionnaire on daily basis.

Operational definitions and study variables

The level of food hygiene practice was determined by using 17 food hygiene practice questions complemented with direct observation. The food hygiene practice was computed with a maximum score of seventeen. By considering the mean score (12), the food hygiene practice of food handlers was categorized as poor if their score was below twelve, otherwise good practice if their score was greater or equal to twelve. The independent variables included in the study were socio-demographic characteristics (age, sex, religion, marital status, educational status, work experience, work responsibility, working hours and training), knowledge on food safety and work environment related characteristics (toilet facility, source of water, type of hand washing facility and building of ownership). Regarding to food safety knowledge, ten questions were used to determine the food handler’s knowledge about food safety. Finally, by considering the mean score as 6, the food handlers’ knowledge was categorized as poor if their score was less than six, otherwise good knowledge if they score greater than or equal to six.

Data analysis

Data were checked for completeness, edited, coded and entered into the EPI-info version 3.5.3 statistical software, and exported to SPSS version 16 for analysis. Descriptive statistics were carried out for variables in the study using frequency tables, percentage, standard deviation and mean. Initially, cleaning and checking for multi-collinear and outlier variable was done. Then, binary logistic regression model was fitted to assess factors associated with food hygiene practice. In bivariate analysis (crude odds ratio) variables with a P value of ≤ 0.2 were entered into multivariate analysis to control the possible effect of confounders. Both crude odds ratio (COR) and adjusted odds ratio (AOR) were estimated to show the strength of association. Besides, Hosmer and Lemeshow goodness of fit test was checked and it was 0.97 indicating the model well fits the data. In multivariate analysis, variables with a P value of ≤ 0.05 were declared as statistically significant.

Result

Socio-demographic characteristics

A total of 417 food handlers were included in the study with the response rate of 98.8%. Above three-fourths (77.7%) of food handlers were females. More than one-third (39.3%) of the food handlers had primary school education. However, majority (83%) of participants did not take a food safety training (Table 1).
Table 1

Socio-demographic characteristics of food handlers working in the restaurants of Bahir Dar Town, northwest, Ethiopia (n = 417)

Characteristics

Frequency

Percent

Sex

 Male

93

22.3

 Female

324

77.7

Age

 16–20

143

34.3

 21–30

255

61.2

 > 30

19

4.5

Education status

 No read and write

51

12.2

 Read and write

31

7.5

 Primary school

164

39.3

 Secondary school

133

32.9

 College/university

38

9.1

Marital status

 Married

53

12.7

 Single

352

84.4

 Divorced

12

2.9

Religion

 Orthodox

376

90.1

 Muslim

37

8.9

 Protestant

4

1

Work responsibility

 Cooker

174

41.7

 Waiter

243

58.3

Work experience (years)

 < 2

290

69.5

 ≥ 2

127

30.5

Work hours (h)

 ≤ 8

152

36.5

 > 8

265

63.5

Food safety training

 Yes

71

17

 No

346

83

Certification (n = 71)

 Yes

26

36.6

 No

45

63.4

Food safety knowledge of food handler

Out of 417 food handlers, majority 342 (82%) had good food safety knowledge (mean score ≥ 6). Vast majority 373 (89.4%) of food handlers had heard about food borne diseases. Mass media was the most common 252 (67.6%) source of information, followed by sanitarian during inspection 200 (53.6%). The proportion of food handlers who believed that food borne diseases are caused by germs was 357 (95.7%). However, the study demonstrated that substantial proportion (81.8%) of food handlers in Bahir Dar Town restaurants were not aware of the correct temperature for a refrigerator to keep the food safer (Table 2).
Table 2

Food safety knowledge of food handlers in Bahir Dar Town, northwest, Ethiopia

Knowledge questions

Frequency

Percent

Have you ever heard about food borne disease?

 Yes

373

89.4

 No

44

10.6

Who is your source of information about food borne disease?

 Health center

126

33.8

 Sanitarian inspection

200

53.6

 Mass media

252

67.6

 School

115

30.8

 Customers, friends and family

42

11.3

What is the cause of food borne disease?

 Germs

357

95.7

 Chemicals

205

55

Food borne disease is transmitted by

 Contaminated food

340

91.2

 Contaminated water

217

58.2

 Vectors

237

63.5

What is the reason for food contamination?

 Dirty hands

318

85.3

 Dirty working environment/area

352

94.4

 Using of contaminated water

299

80.2

 Unclean/dirty utensils

292

78.3

 Infected food handlers

211

56.6

The correct temperature for refrigerator is 1–5 °C

 Yes

76

18.2

 No

341

81.8

The temperature danger zone for potentially hazardous food is 5–60 °C

 Yes

48

11.5

 No

369

88.5

Does raw meat transmit disease?

 Yes

355

85.1

 No

62

14.9

Does raw milk transmit disease?

 Yes

404

96.9

 No

13

3.1

Do raw vegetables transmit disease?

 Yes

316

75.8

 No

101

24.2

Personal hygiene of food handler can prevent food borne disease

 Yes

396

95

 No

21

5

Knowledge of food safety

 Good

342

82

 Poor

75

18

Working environment and food hygiene practice of food handlers

Characteristics of food handlers

All food handlers (99.8 and 100%, respectively) were working in restaurants where private piped water and toilet facility are available (Table 3).
Table 3

Working environmental characteristics of food handlers, in Bahir Dar Town, northwest Ethiopia

Variables

Frequency

Percent

Ownership of building

 Owned

224

53.7

 Rented

193

46.3

Source of water

 Private pipe

411

98.6

 Othersa

6

1.4

Waste disposal

 Septic tank

278

66.7

 Open space

21

5

 Water drainage

97

23.2

Availability of latrine

 Yes

417

100

 No

0

0

Availability of kitchen

 Yes

416

99.8

 No

1

0.2

Type of hand washing facility

 Piped fountains

296

71

 Welded metals

48

11.5

 Jug or discarded object

73

17.5

aPipe shared, pipe from neighbor

About 67.6% [95% CI 58.8, 76.4] of food handlers had good food hygiene practice. Two-third (65.7 and 64.3%, respectively) of food handlers wearied outer garments cleaned and sanitized work surfaces after each task had good food hygiene practice. However, below one-third (29.5%) of food handlers who covered their hair while working had good food hygiene practice (Table 4).
Table 4

Food hygiene practice among food handlers in restaurants of Bahir Dar Town, northwest, Ethiopia

Food hygienic practices

Good (%)

Poor (%)

Does the food handler wear outer garments/gown during visit?

 Yes

274 (65.7)

63 (15.1)

 No

8 (1.9)

72 (17.3)

Cleanness of outer garments?

 Yes

203 (48.7)

51 (12.2)

 No

62 (14.9)

101 (24.2)

Does the food handlers hair covered while working in food service establishments during visit?

 Yes

123 (29.5)

39 (9.4)

 No

259 (62.1)

96 (23.0)

Does the food handler’s finger nail short trimmed and clean?

 Yes

247 (59.2)

85 (20.4)

 No

35 (8.4)

50 (12)

Does food handler wear any jewelry or ring on hand at time of visit?

 Yes

263 (63.1)

76 (18.2)

 No

19 (4.6)

59 (14.1)

Does food handler clean and sanitize work surfaces after each task today?

 Yes

268 (64.3)

52 (12.5)

 No

14 (3.4)

83 (19.9)

Does food handler use soap/detergent for washing dishes?

 Yes

271 (65)

104 (25)

 No

11 (2.6)

31 (7.4)

Does the food handler use hot water for washing dishes?

 Yes

117 (28)

15 (3.6)

 No

165 (39.6)

120 (28.8)

Does the food handler wash cutting surfaces/knife/with soap/belch/after using it for cutting raw meat or chicken?

 Yes

196 (47.1)

11 (2.6)

 No

86 (20.6)

124 (29.7)

Does the food handler wash his/her hands with soap and water before working with food?

 Yes

249 (59.7)

65 (15.6)

 No

33 (7.9)

70 (16.8)

Does the food handler wash his/her hands with soap and water after visiting a latrine?

 Yes

268 (64.3)

99 (23.8)

 No

14 (3.4)

36 (8.6)

Does the food handler drink or eat food while serving or preparing food?

 Yes

280 (67.2)

88 (21)

 No

2 (0.5)

47 (11.3)

Does the food handler kept ready-to-eat foods in a clean container and covered properly?

 Yes

257 (61.6)

40 (9.6)

 No

25 (6)

95 (22.8)

Does the food handler stored food utensils in well-arranged manner in shelf or cupboard?

 Yes

243 (58.3)

21 (5)

 No

39 (9.4)

114 (27.4)

Does the food utensils free of dust particles, finger paint and other marks?

 Yes

278 (66.6)

58 (13.8)

 No

4 (1)

77 (18.5)

Does the food handler use a separate clean utensil for each food item?

 Yes

277 (66.4)

52 (12.5)

 No

5 (1.2)

83 (19.9)

Does the food handler store raw food item in an area separate from cooked food?

 Yes

268 (64.2)

31 (7.4)

 No

14 (3.4)

104 (25)

Factors associated with food hygiene practice

In the bivariable analysis, age, education, food safety training, work responsibility, work experience and type of hand washing were associated with P value of ≤ 0.2. On the other hand, the multivariate analysis revealed that food safety training, education, work experience, and type of hand washing were significantly and independently associated with food hygiene practice of food handlers.

With this regard, the odds of having good food hygienic practice were 4.7 times [AOR: 4.7, 95% CI 1.7, 12.8] higher among food handlers who received food safety training. Likewise, the odds of having good food hygiene practice were higher among food handlers who had formal education [AOR: 6.4, 95% CI 3.5, 11.5]. The likelihood of having good food hygienic practice was 3.4 folds [AOR: 3.4, 95% CI 1.8, 6.4] higher among food handlers who had work experiences of greater than or equal to 2 years. Finally, the type of hand wash, piped fountains, was associated with good food hygiene practice [AOR: 2.1, 95% CI 1.1, 3.8] (Table 5).
Table 5

Factors associated with food hygienic practice among food handlers working in restaurants of Bahir Dar Town, northwest, Ethiopia

Variables

Food hygienic practice

Crude odds ratio (95% CI)

Adjusted odds ratio (95% CI)

Good

poor

Educational status

 No formal education

24

58

1

1

 Formal education

258

77

8.1 (4.72, 13.88)

6.4 (3.5, 11.5)

Work responsibility

 Cooker

108

66

1

1

 Waiter

174

69

1.5 (1.1, 2.3)

1.3 (0.8, 2.2)

Work experience (years)

 < 2

172

118

1

1

 ≥ 2

110

17

4.4 (2.5, 7.8)

3.4 (1.8, 6.4)

Training

 Yes

66

5

7.9 (3.1, 20.2)

4.7 (1.7, 12.8)

 No

216

130

1

1

Type of hand washing

 Piped fountains

208

88

2.3 (1.4, 3.9)

2.1 (1.1, 3.8)

 Metal welded

11

37

0.3 (0.3, 1.4)

0.6 (0.3, 1.4)

 Jug or discarded object

37

36

1

1

Discussion

This study investigated the status of food hygiene practice and associated factors among food handlers. The reported illustrated that 67.6% of the food handlers had good food hygiene practice. This finding was consistent with a study conducted in Mekelle University student’s cafeteria, Ethiopia (63.9%) [12]. On the other hand, the good food hygiene practice in this study was higher compared with study conducted in Dangila Town, Ethiopia (52.5%) [15]. This discrepancy might be due to better inspection and regulation systems in the current study because of Bahir Dar Town is the capital of Amhara region, center of tourist destination, training and conference center compared to the later report. Moreover, this result was higher than a study conducted in Nigeria (56.3%) [25]. The observed difference might be due to sample size, operational definition, demographic and regulatory systems variations.

The odds of having good food hygienic practice were 4.7 times higher among food handlers who received food safety training. This finding was supported by the earlier studies [18, 26, 27]. Training enhances food handlers’ awareness on food borne diseases [10, 26]. In addition, food hygiene training could enable food handlers to better understand and fulfill their responsibilities and exercise skills [26].

This study also showed that the odds of good food hygiene practice were higher among food handlers who had formal education compared to no formal education. The study conducted in Ethiopia [16, 28], Malaysia [27] and Nigeria [25] revealed the importance of education for food handlers to ensure food safety. Obviously, education helps to augment knowledge thereby to develop skill of food handlers to work according to standard procedures to maintain food hygienic/safety [13].

As well, the result of this study showed that the practice of food hygiene was 3.4-fold more satisfactory in food handler’s having work experience greater or equal 2 years than food handlers having working experience less than 2 years. A study conducted in Iowa State University Hotel and Restaurant, practice scores increased as food handler’s works Services advances [14]. This might be due o the fact that behaviors can be learned through repeated practice, therefore experienced food handlers are in better position to acquired skills on food hygiene.

Finally, food handlers working in restaurants with piped fountains for hand wash were 2.05 times more likely to have good food hygiene practice compared to those working in establishments which had a jug or discarded object. The possible reason might be those food handlers working in restaurants the type of hand washing were piped fountains may better to keep their personal hygiene, clean the working environment easily which in turn enables to attain good food hygienic practice.

Conclusions

In this study, the overall food hygiene practice of food handlers is not to the acceptable level. Therefore, endeavors ought to be reinforced to improve food hygiene practices of food handlers through intervention programs such as training and education. Also emphasis should be given ensure availability of piped fountains in each restaurant.

Abbreviations

WHO: 

World Health Organization

AOR: 

adjusted odds ratio

COR: 

crude odds ratio

CI: 

confidence interval

SD: 

standard deviation

Declarations

Authors’ contributions

TD GAB AN conceived the study, developed the tool and coordinated data collection. FA MAAT assisted in tool development, coordinated data collection and carried out the statistical analysis and drafted the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Acknowledgements

Authors would like to thank food handlers for their willingness to participate in the study.

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Availability of data and materials

Data will be made available upon requesting the primary author.

Consent for publication

Not applicable.

Ethics approval and consent to participate

The ethical clearance was obtained from the institutional review board of university of Gondar. Permission letter was secured from managers of each restaurant. All food handlers were informed about the purpose of the study, and interview was held only with those who agreed to give a written consent to participate. Uneducated study participants affirmed their consent by their thumb print. The right of a participant to withdraw from the study at any time, without any precondition was disclosed unequivocally. Moreover, the confidentiality of information obtained was guaranteed by all data collectors and investigators by using code numbers rather than personal identifiers and by keeping the questionnaire locked.

Funding

This study was funded by University of Gondar.

Publisher’s Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

Authors’ Affiliations

(1)
Department of Human Nutrition, Institute of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia
(2)
Department of Nursing, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia
(3)
Department of Nursing, Teda Health Science College, Gondar, Ethiopia
(4)
Department of Health Service Management and Heath Economics, Institute of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia
(5)
Department of Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety, Institute of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia

References

  1. WHO. Estimates of the global burden of food borne diseases. World Health Organization; 2015.Google Scholar
  2. Mead PS, Slutsker L, Dietz V, McCaig LF, Bresee JS, Shapiro C, Griffin PM, Tauxe RV. Food-related illness and death in the United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 1999;5(5):607.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
  3. Barrabeig RA, Buesa J, Bartolomé R, Pintó R, Prellezo H, Domínguez A. Foodborne norovirus outbreak: the role of an asymptomatic food handler. BMC Infect Dis. 2010;10:269.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
  4. World Health Organization. Food safety and food borne illness. Geneva: WHO; 2007.Google Scholar
  5. Havelaar AH, Cawthorne A, Angulo F, et al. On behalf of the Foodborne Disease Burden Epidemiology Reference Group (FERG): WHO initiative to estimate the global burden of foodborne diseases. Lancet. 2013;381:S59.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  6. Akintaro OA. Food handling, hygiene and the role of food regulatory agencies in promoting good health and development in Nigeria. Int J Health Med Inform. 2012;1(3):2350.Google Scholar
  7. MaizunMohd Zain and NyiNyiNaing. Sociodemographic characteristics of food handlers and their knowledge, attitude and practice towards food sanitation: a preliminary report. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2002;33:410–7.Google Scholar
  8. Kasturwar NB, Shafee M. Knowledge, practices and prevalence of mrsa among food handlers. Int J Biol Med Res. 2011;2(4):889–94.Google Scholar
  9. Kaferstein FK. Food safety the fourth pillar in the strategy to prevent infant diarrhea. Bull World Health Organ. 2003;81(11):842–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. WHO. Five keys to safer food manual. Geneva: WHO; 2006.Google Scholar
  11. Luby SP, Faizan MK, Fisher- Hoch SP, et al. Risk factors for typhoid fever in an endemic setting, Karachi, Pakistan. Epidemiol Infect. 1998;120:129–38.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
  12. Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN). Guide to minimize microbial food safety hazards of fresh cut fruits and vegetables draft guidance. US Department of Health and Human Services Food and Drug Administration March; 2006.Google Scholar
  13. WHO. Food Borne Disease: a Focus for Health Education. Geneva: WHO; 2000.Google Scholar
  14. Lin SY, Sneed J. University foodservice employees’ food safety knowledge, attitudes, practices, and training. (HACCP) programs in assisted-living facilities in Iowa State University. J Am Dietetic Assoc. 2004;104(11):1678–83.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  15. Tessama AG, Gelaye KA, Chercos DH. Factors affecting food handlers practices among food handlers of Dangila town food and drinks establishment in northwest Ethiopia. BMC Public Health. 2014;14:571.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  16. Zain M, Naing N. Socio demographic characteristics of food handlers and their knowledge, attitude and practice towards food sanitation: a preliminary report. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2002;33(2):410–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Nigusse D, Kumie A. Food hygiene practices and prevalence of intestinal parasites among food handlers working in Mekelle university student’s cafeteria, Mekelle. Global Adv Res J Soc Sci (GARJSS). 2012;1(4):065–71.Google Scholar
  18. Baş M, Şafak Ersun A, Kıvanç G. The evaluation of food hygiene knowledge, attitudes, and practices of food handlers’ in food businesses in Turkey. Food Control. 2006;17(4):317–22.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  19. Salvato JA. Environmental engineering and sanitation. 4th ed. New York: Willy; 1992.Google Scholar
  20. Fisseha G, Berhane Y. Teka G. food handling practice in public caterings in Addis Ababa; Ethiopia. Ethiop Med J. 1999;37(1):1–10.Google Scholar
  21. Kumie A, Genete K, Worku H. The sanitary condition of public food and drink establishments in the district town of Zeway, Southern Ethiopia. Ethiop J Health Dev. 2002;16(1):95–103.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  22. Baraki N, Wodajo A, Abera M. Food-borne diseases, Ethiopia public health training initiative. In: Haramaya University, collaboration with the Ethiopia Public Health Training Initiative, The Carter Center, the Ethiopia Ministry of Health, and the Ethiopia Ministry of Education; 2005.Google Scholar
  23. Ministry of health: planning and program department, the federal democratic republic of Ethiopia, health and health related indicators, Addis Ababa Ethiopia; 2005.Google Scholar
  24. The 2010 population and housing census of Ethiopia. In: Authority CS, editor. Ethiopia; 2010.Google Scholar
  25. Afolaranmi T, Hassan Z, Bello D. Knowledge and practice of food safety and hygiene among food vendors in primary schools in Jos, Plateau State, North Central Nigeria. J Med Res. 2015;4(2):016–22.Google Scholar
  26. Park SH, Kwak TK, Chang HJ. Evaluation of the food safety training for food handlers in restaurants operations. Nutr Res Pract. 2010;4(1):58–68.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
  27. Sharif L, Mohammad MO, Raed MA. Food hygiene knowledge, attitudes and practices of the food handlers in the Military Hospitals. J Food Nutr Sci. 2013;4:245–51.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  28. Asrat M, Andualem H, Worku T, Tafesse L. Assessment of the sanitary conditions of catering establishments and food safety knowledge and practices of food handlers in Addis Ababa University Students’ Cafeteria. Sci J Public Health. 2015;3(5):733–43.View ArticleGoogle Scholar

Copyright

© The Author(s) 2017

Advertisement