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Table 1 Patient characteristics during midweek ward visits from selected hospitals, Cairo, Egypt, April 2014

From: Restraint use among selected hospitalized elderly patients in Cairo, Egypt

  University Hospital A (N = 113) University Hospital B (N = 69) Ministerial Hospital (N = 57) Private Hospital (N = 48)
Median age (IQR) 60 (58–67)* 63 (58–68)* 67 (62–73) 68.5 (63–75.5)
Male sex (N%) 51 (45.1) 45 (65.2) 29 (50.9) 30 (62.5)
Education (N%)
 Illiterate 75 (66.4)* 39 (56.5)* 28 (49.1)* 9 (18.8)
 Some school 29 (25.7) 21 (30.4) 21 (36.8) 19 (39.6)
 College 8 (7.1) 9 (13.0) 6 (10.5) 14 (29.2)
 Post graduate 1 (0.9) 0 2 (3.5) 4 (8.3)
Age adjusted Charlson comorbidities score
 Median score (IQR) 6.0 (5–8) 5.5 (4–7)* 6.0 (5–7)* 7.0 (6–9)
 Scores by categories
  < 5 (N%) 17 (15.0) 23 (33.8)* 9 (15.8)* 3 (6.3)
  5–6 (N%) 27 (23.9) 11 (16.2) 8 (14.0) 8 (16.7)
  6–8 (N%) 28 (24.8) 23 (33.8) 29 (50.9) 16 (33.3)
  > 8 (N%) 41 (36.3) 11 (16.2) 11 (19.3) 21 (43.8)
Device (N%)
 None 24 (21.2)* 10 (14.5) 30 (52.6)* 5 (10.4)
 Feeding tube 69 (61.1) 21 (30.4) 17 (29.8) 16 (33.3)
 Urinary catheter 17 (15.0) 32 (46.4) 8 (14.0) 21 (43.8)
 Tracheal tube 3 (2.7) 6 (8.7) 2 (3.5) 6 (12.5)
Medications
 Median number per patient (IQR) 7.0 (5–10) 4.0 (3–6)* 8.0 (7–11) 8.0 (4–12)
Attempts at interference in treatment (N%)
 More than once 3 (2.7) 1 (1.5) 0 (0) 0 (0)
 Once 7 (6.2) 6 (8.7) 2 (3.5) 4 (8.3)
 None 103 (91.2) 62 (89.9) 55 (96.5) 44 (91.7)
Successful attempts at interference (N%)
 0 106 (93.8) 63 (91.3) 55 (96.5) 44 (91.7)
 1 6 (5.3) 4 (5.8) 1 (1.8) 4 (8.3)
 2 0 0 1 (1.8) 0
 4 1 (0.9) 0 0 0
 5 0 1 (1.5) 0 0
 20 0 1 (1.5) 0 0
Number of falls
 None 106 (94.6) 67 (97.1) 54 (94.7) 48 (100)
 Once 4 (3.6) 2 (2.9) 3 (5.3) 0
 More than once 2 (1.8) 0 0 0
Caregiver present (N%)
 Formal 1 (0.9) 1 (1.5) 1 (1.8) 0
 Informal 91 (80.5) 52 (75.4) 36 (63.2) 32 (66.7)
 None 21 (18.6) 16 (23.2) 20 (35.1) 16 (33.3)
Caregiver asked to observe patient (N%) 35 (31.0)* 35 (55.7) 30 (52.6) 26 (54.2)
  1. Specific variable totals may not equal column total due to missing data
  2. * Statistically significant (p < 0.05) difference compared to the private hospital, which was used as the comparator