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Table 2 Perioperative characteristics

From: Use of spinal anaesthesia in neonates and infants in Antananarivo, Madagascar: a retrospective descriptive study

   N %
Surgery Hernia (inguinal and/or scrotal) ± circumcision 50 72.5
 Bilateral hernia 26 37.7
 Right hernia 16 23.2
 Left hernia 8 11.6
Bilateral ovarian hernia 19 27.5
Surgery of lower limbs (gangrene/necrosis) 2 2.9
Spinal anesthesia (SA) Position of the patient
 Lateral decubitus 9 13.0
 Sitting position 60 87.0
Number of punctures
 1 34 47.3
 2 22 31.9
 ≥ 3 13 18.8
Incidents during the technique (blood reflux)
 CSF reflux after a first blood reflux 1 1.4
 CSF reflux after a 2nd puncture 4 5.8
Failure of SA
 Due to the techniquea 2  
 Due to the LA 2 2.9
General anesthesia (GA) conversion 4 5.8
2.9
  1. CSF: Cerebral Spinal Fluid; LA: Local Anesthetic; GA: General Anesthesia 
  2. aBlood reflux without secondary CSF reflux or after 2nd lumbar puncture