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Table 2 Reasons for retraction ranked according to countries with at least 10 retractions in 2008

From: Visibility of retractions: a cross-sectional one-year study

  Total Mistakes Plagiarism Fraud Overlap Not detailed Authorship Inconsistent data Property or legal concerns Editor Ethics
Total 235 65 48 34 25 21 12 11 8 8 3
USA 52 31 (48) 2 (4) 3 (9) 5 (20) 4 (19) 1 (8) 3 (27) 2 (25) 1 (13) .
India 35 2 (3) 6 (13) 15 (44) 8 (32) 1 (5) 1 (8) 1 (9) . 1 (13) .
China 29 7 (11) 10 (21) . 2 (8) 3 (14) 3 (25) 1 (9) 2 (25) 1 (13) .
Japan 25 3 (5) 2 (4) 12 (35) 2 (8) 2 (10) . 2 (18) . . 2 (67)
United Kingdom 11 3 (5) 4 (8) 1 (3) . 2 (10) . 1 (9) . . .
Korea 11 5 (8) . 1 (3) . 1 (5) . . 2 (25) 2 (25) .
  1. Values are n (column percentage). Column percentage = number of given reason in a country/ total for this reason; allowing to see which countries contribute the most to each reason.
  2. The column percentages do not add to 100% because some countries were not reported in the table.